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October 2022 Vol. 10 No.10

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Doykov M

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Merit Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (ISSN: 2354-323X) Vol. 10(10) pp. 244-248, October, 2022 

Copyright © 2022 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7242439

Original Research Article

Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Combined with Holmium: YAG Laser for Treatment of Large Renal Stones


Mladen Doykov


Department of “Urology and General Medicine”, Medical Faculty, Medical University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Clinic of Urology, University Hospital “Kaspela”, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Email: mdoykov@abv.bg
Tel: +359887849283

Received: 14 September 2022  I  Accepted: 20 October 2022  I  Published: 24 October 2022  I  Article ID: MRJMMS22066
Copyright © 2022 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.




Kidney stone disease is a common problem in primary care practice. Bulgaria is endemic region and the number of people in need of treatment is growing. Patients may present with the classic symptoms of renal colic and hematuria. Some patients may be asymptomatic or have atypical symptoms such as vague abdominal pain, while others will have more typical symptoms, such as acute flank pain, nausea, urinary urgency or frequency, fever, or testicular pain. Drug treatment of urolithiasis is directly dependent on the chemical composition of the stone and very rarely the desired release of the stone is achieved. Approximately 20 to 30 percent of all kidney stones require surgical removal, which is determined based upon the presence of symptoms and the size and location of the stones. This article presents the effectiveness of the treatment of large kidney stones with minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy combined with disposable aspiration access shaft.

Keywords: Kidney stone disease, Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy, Modified access aspiration Shaft, Holmium: Yag laser, Stone free rate



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