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February 2023 Vol. 11 No.2

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Merit Research Journal of Education and Review (ISSN: 2350-2282) Vol.11(2) pp. 010-020, January, 2023

Copyright © 2023 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article

Original Research Article

Effect of Expository Organizers on Students’ Performance in Biology among Secondary Schools in the Limbe Municipality, South West Region of Cameroon


Alvine Joso Bih Otto


Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of Buea. Cameroon.

*Corresponding Author's E-mail: elukongt@gmail.com

Received: 03 February 2023  I  Accepted: 26 February 2023  I  Published: 28 February 2023  I  Article ID: MRJER23011
Copyright © 2023 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.




This study focused on the effects of the use of expository organizers on students’ performance in Biology in Selected Secondary Schools in the Limbe Municipality, South West Region of Cameroon. The quasi-experimental research design of non – randomized pretest, posttest was used. The population for the study consisted of 6,863 forms three students drawn from 102 secondary schools in Fako Division. Purposive sampling technique was used in selecting the different school types as well as the class. Using the simple random sampling technique, a sample of 150 students was drawn from the three schools that took part in the study. The instruments used for data collection were a questionnaire for students, the Biology Achievement Test (BAT), and an interview guide for teachers which were validated by research supervisors and other experts. Cronbach’s Alpha Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the overall reliability analysis coefficient of the instruments and was projected to be 0.759 and 0.747 for experimental and control groups at pretest level, and 0.777 and 0.798 for experimental and control groups at posttest level. The data collected were analyzed using means, standard deviation and independent t-test to test the hypotheses at P≤ .05 level of significance while qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Statistically, the results showed that students in the experimental group taught using expository organizers (Mean 42.66 plus or minus 1.822) significantly (P-value 0.000< 0.05) performed far better than those in the control group that were not taught using expository organizers (Mean 6.58 plus or minus 0.347) and the t-calculated value was 19.452 > than the t-critical value of 1.960. All of the teachers in their own part said expository organizers are effective, increase students’ comprehension (students’ learning) for a short-term or long-term period, increase thinking capacity, increase performance, and increase class participations and engagement in lessons. Based on the findings, it was recommended that teachers should be encouraged to use expository organizer in teaching biology in secondary schools. It was also recommended that teachers in secondary schools should be trained on how to use advance organizers through workshops, seminars and symposia. School monitoring team and supervisors of educational programmes in secondary schools should ensure that advance organizers are used in teaching biology.

Keywords: Advance organizers, Biology Achievement Test (BAT), Control group, Expository organizers, Students’ Performance



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