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December 2020 Vol.8 No.12

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Merit Research Journal of Education and Review (ISSN: 2350-2282) Vol. 8(12) pp. 207-225, December, 2020

Copyright © 2020 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4394866

Original Research Article

Gender Inequalities of Youth in Education and in Labor Market Participation in Tunisia


Mohamed Bouhari* and Farouk Kriaa


1Professor in Economics, Faculty of Economics and Management of Tunis, University of Tunis Al Manar, Tunisia.
2Professor of Quantitative Methods, Faculty of Economics and Management of Tunis, University of Tunis Al Manar, Tunisia

*Corresponding Author's Email: Email: mohabouhtn@yahoo.com

Received: 03 December 2020    I    Accepted: 24 December 2020    I    Published: 28 December 2020    I    Article ID: MRJER-20-056
Copyright © 2020 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.




This paper examined the gender inequalities among youth in education and participation in the labour market in Tunisia using data from Tunisia Labor Market Panel Survey (TLMPS 2014) and the World Bank data indicators (2016). Separate regressions were also made to estimate the relationship between education and labor force participation for men and women. Several interesting points are noted. First, in contrast to the literature, regression with time series shows the declining effect of female at all education levels on the participation of women in the labor market. This participation did not improve with the increased education of women. Second, at the individual level, our estimations, including an upward selection bias, indicate that the education level and other socio-economic characteristics (e.g. age, marriage, family size, father’s occupation and parents’ education level) are the most important factors explaining the variation in the gender participation gap. Reducing this gap should be considered an important goal, for example, by reforming the labor market policies to minimize favoritism towards men and by supporting girls’ technical/vocational training.

JEL Classification: C35, I2, J16, J24

Keywords: Education, Gender gap, Heckprobit, Labor force participation, Youth













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